Choose Air Pressure Testing to undertake your thermographic survey

What is involved in a thermographic survey?

The type of thermographic survey that is needed depends upon a project's specific needs. The majority of thermographic surveys help locate air leakage paths, and to identify thermal anomalies (a result of poorly installed or missing thermal insulation). All thermographic surveys are of a non-destructive and non-contact nature, which means that there will not be any damage to the property being surveyed.

The majority of thermographic surveys undertaken by Air Pressure Testing are typically carried out in conjunction with one of our building air-tightness tests. Whilst the house is depressurised, cold air from the outside will be drawn in through gaps in the structure. Where there is a temperature differential, the effect of any infiltration will be seen by the thermal imaging camera during the thermographic test. This type of thermographic survey is usually carried out from the inside of a property, and is not usually dependent upon particular weather conditions (as for other surveys). Once the leakage path areas are identified, the necessary remedial sealing works can be carried out by the air leakage company prior to the thermographic survey

Thermographic surveys are also carried out to find defects in thermal insulation and other areas of construction defects that represent a heating energy loss. This type of thermographic survey is usually carried out both internally and externally. External thermographic surveys require the correct weather conditions and are generally carried out in the hours of darkness.

The thermographic survey method and the environmental conditions required to enable a satisfactory interpretation of the thermal images in relation to insulation are described in ISO 6781: Thermal insulation - Qualitative detection of thermal irregularities in building envelopes - Infrared method. For most investigations the requirements are as follows:

·          A temperature difference between the inside and outside of a house of at least 5°C over a period of four or more hours, allowing the building mass to be heated. Because of this, best thermographic results are often (although not always) obtained in the heating season (October to March).

·          Diffused light - i.e. minimal sunlight, again for a period of four or more hours, otherwise the solar temperature gain emitted from the surface of a structure could be interpreted as an energy loss.

·          Dry conditions during the thermographic survey. This is not necessarily to protect the equipment, but because any rain on the surface of a building will cool the temperature, potentially leading to inaccurate interpretation of the thermal image during the thermographic survey.

·          Low wind speeds (less than 6m/s or light to moderate breeze)

What information is contained in a report?

Typically, results will be presented as a series of radiometric images (or thermograms) which will physically illustrate areas of heat loss from the building surfaces. Usually the thermograms are presented with the range of surface temperatures measured, and a normal visual image for ease of reference. Potential faults located by the thermographic survey will be marked on the images contained in the thermographic report. These faults can also be added to layout and elevation drawings of the building. A report will provide a professional interpretation of thermograms, and a complete record of the thermographic survey, listing the equipment used, and the environmental conditions at the time of the thermographic survey.

General Notes

 

All components of a building emit infrared radiation - heat that is invisible to the human eye. The infrared (thermographic) camera observes this infrared radiation and displays an image of the thermal patterns electronically during the thermographic survey.

Air Pressure Testing’s Technicians skilled and qualified in building diagnostics can establish from these image which elements have surface heat patterns that signify conductive or convective heat loss/gain.

In building thermography, thermographic surveys tend to be qualitative rather than quantitative. In practice we are seeking comparative areas that exhibit disparate characteristics or thermal patterns, under the same conditions, during the Thermographic test as a means of identification and highlighting areas that require further investigation, remedial attention, or indeed, confirming that a previous fault has been rectified.

An infrared (thermographic) survey may require support by referring to construction drawings, moisture meters, humidity and temperature data-logging, anemometers, barometers, blower doors and smoke pencils, or larger smoke machines

A "quantitative" thermal investigation (thermographic testing) may also help determine the magnitude of an anomaly, by taking temperature readings from the recorded images.

 

Moisture and Mould

 

Extraneous moisture in building fabrics may compromise structural integrity and create an ideal environment for mould growth and insect infestations. Infra Red cameras differentiate between wet and dry materials by exploiting the thermal characteristic of wet materials to store heat very well and warm up or cool down more slowly than dry materials. The growing number of health-related legal actions based upon adverse human health reactions to mould and bacteria is a growing concern for lenders, developers, facilities managers, and building owners and investors. Let Air Pressure Testing alleviate these problems by undertaking a Thermographic survey

 

To remedy problems caused by mould the primary task is to rapidly and accurately locate and remove all sources of moisture and identify the point of ingress. Infra Red cameras can instantly image complete rooms, inspect areas that can’t be surveyed with moisture meters, reveal wet conditions/areas behind surfaces such as enameled walls and wallpaper that don’t readily water stain, track leaks to their source, monitor the drying process, and confirm when a structure is dry. Let Air Pressure Testing find these areas now by undertaking a Thermographic survey

 

Construction Defects

The current trend for using external thermal and structural insulation facade systems, along with stone, stucco, brick veneers and siding as facades on residential as well as commercial buildings invites the possibility of water ingress if the quality of installation is faulty. Thermographic surveys  can detect or verify moisture infiltration in these weatherproofing “barrier” systems, which are usually caused by insufficient detailing such as inadequate or improperly applied flashing or sealants. Without an Thermographic survey the cause of many “mystery” leaks and the detection of moisture migration paths within the walls, floors and ceilings are virtually impossible to find Air pressure testing will help you find these leaks using the latest Thermographic equipment.

 

Roof Leaks

Roof leaks can cause costly damage to a building’s structural integrity, it’s plant and contents. A Thermographic inspection can quickly pinpoint missing or moisture - laden insulation under a flat roof membrane where the insulation needs replacement, permitting the surgical repair of failed areas rather than the much more costly replacement of the entire roof.

 

Roofing Thermographic  survey / inspection is best conducted after sunset, since the wet areas retain the heat absorbed during the day longer than the surrounding dry areas, causing a temperature difference that can be imaged, with the wet areas showing up as hot spots. The Thermographic inspections can also be used to inspect roof decks from inside a building, a highly effective approach when working with metal and ballasted roofing systems, which are difficult or impossible to inspect from above. In this case, the inspection and then Thermographic survey can be performed shortly after sunrise, when the wet areas of the underside of the roof warm up more slowly than dry areas and show up as cold spots. Using Infrared Thermographic survey cameras, capable of recognising temperature differences down to 0.1 °C. using a Thermographic survey such anomalies are easily recorded for future remedial works.

Post-disaster Inspections

 

Post –disaster inspections

using Infrared cameras & Thermographic surveys can be an invaluable method of rapidly identifying remnant hot spots, assuring that the fire is totally extinguished and providing invaluable data for insurance assessors with their Cause and Origin investigations. The clear Infra Red Thermographic survey images of normally invisible diagnostic evidence can assist in the planning and execution of the restoration programme and in the settlement process. After flooding, Infra Red Thermographic surveys can rapidly define the degree of water damage and enhance the drying process by rendering the wet portion of materials visible.

 

Historic / Listed  Buildings

 

Apart from the obvious and established use of locating and defining heat loss (which in itself can be very important in an old building) applications for infra red Thermographic surveys include the location and/or assessment of the following:

·          Structural timber frames behind render, weather-boarding plaster etc.

·          Structural joints, infilled openings etc. behind render on masonry walls

·          Bond failure and moisture ingress in renders, pargetting and harling

·          Lintels, structural failures, snapped headers etc. in brickwork

·          Variations in moisture levels

 

Assessment and inspection by conventional means can often involve the hire of expensive access equipment, temporary scaffolding and disruption of activity. Infrared Thermographic survey

 

Assessment and inspection by conventional means can often involve the hire of expensive access equipment, temporary scaffolding and disruption of activity. Infrared surveys however can often be conducted from ground level. The speed with which an entire street can be assessed by undertaking a Thermographic survey makes it a valuable tool in historical recording. The Thermographic survey images can be electronically captured, stored on disc and printed out in colour. However, infra-red Thermographic surveys is very sensitive to climatic conditions - rain or bright sun on a wall to be investigated may prevent any successful Thermographic assessment, and the temperature gradient required sometimes means that more information on heated buildings can be obtained in winter, and unheated ones (such as churches) may be better having the Thermographic survey at night when the day's solar gain provides sufficient gradation.

Air leak / Heat Loss

 

A significant contribution to heat loss in a building can be caused by poor levels of air tightness/air leakage . The economic consequences can be increased fuel bills and system running costs caused by heating systems having to work harder than necessary to keep the building at a satisfactory temperature. Relatively minor air leakages in a building can lead to draughts and discomfort for householders, patches of condensation on walls and inefficient energy performance. Identifying the source of a draught can be difficult with the air leakage paths often hidden by kitchen units, bath panels or other boarding.

 

Air Leakage testing uses a fan system to depressurise the building. The system is fitted into a frame sealed within an external opening such as a doorframe. Mechanical ventilation openings are sealed with polythene sheet and tape or other appropriate materials. Smoke extract fans/vents are closed but not sealed, and other internal openings (e.g. lift shafts) are left unsealed. As the building is depressurised, colder air is drawn into the building through gaps, crack and holes in the building fabric. These may be visually noted, identified by the use of smoke pencils or recorded on a thermographic survey image.

 

Combining a blower door test with thermography surveys in this way, enables a systematic recording, with visual evidence in the form of thermograms and photographs, of air leakage paths, which can be combined with annotated floor plans in a Thermographic survey report if required.

Sound / Noise Leakage

Noise leaks can be difficult to locate. As noise tends to follow the same path as an air leak – a leak the size of a keyhole will reduce the sound insulation properties of a wall by 10dB – the same method of blower door and thermography /Thermographic surveys can be utilized to track down the cause of noise leaks between rooms or floors.

 

News Letter for Contractors

 

Has it gone amiss? Are the implications understood? Professionals in a number of related disciplines may not know of its function, but since September 2001 thermography/ Thermographic surveys has sat quietly within Part L2 of the building regulations.

Look closely and the references will be found under ‘section 2.1b’. At the time of publication, the technology and techniques required to ascertain the continuity of insulation/thermal bridging within a building-envelope, were just emerging. Whilst the objectives of such an inspection were readily agreed, the methodology and practicality, in terms of cost / benefit, had yet to be developed.

Most industries are adverse to change and the construction world is no different. Tighter building regulations require a stronger more advanced design and build technique, which in turn necessitates higher standards of inspection, quality audits and product approval.
This is why thermography/ Thermographic survey are becoming an integral part of the overall process, as it can provide the documentary evidence to prove compliance.

So what is thermography?
Thermography is a method by which thermal information of an object can be acquired, processed and then displayed in a visual way with the data recorded within the Thermographic surveys remedial works can easily be undertaken. A ‘thermogram’ or ‘thermal image’ can be likened to a picture created with heat, in the same way that a photograph is a picture created with light. All objects warmer than –273° C emit infrared radiation. The power and wavelength of the emission varies with the temperature such that colder objects emit less infrared energy, this becomes easily recognisable when shown as part of a Thermographic survey.

The small additional cost for building handovers including thermography / thermographic surveys is minimal, especially if compared to the expenditure on energy bills during the life cycle of a structure. Controlling the heat loss leads to an immediate financial benefit for the consumer whilst reducing carbon emission and the conservation of fuel and power.

A thermographic building survey not nly shows continuity of insulation but in areas of prolific heat loss can aid with the development of future design details. The importance of this tool will inevitably grow as the general understanding and acceptance spreads; but that’s for the future.

Only professionally qualified thermographic companies or individuals should conduct thermographic building surveys.

The report delivered should include:

·          Reference to building drawings/plans

·          Camera serial number, time and date of survey

·          Environmental Conditions of Survey

·          Locations of where the still IR images were collected

·          Qualitative infrared and digital video showing all buildings external elevations

·          Report pages detailing any specific observed anomalies with analysis

·          Date, signature, calibration certificate of Camera and Thermographers certification number.

 

For further information on thermography building inspections please contact Air Pressure Testing, who will be more than willing to assist with any of your questions or queries.

 

What is involved in a thermographic survey?

The type of thermographic survey that is needed depends upon a project's specific needs. The majority of thermographic surveys help locate air leakage paths, and to identify thermal anomalies (a result of poorly installed or missing thermal insulation). All thermographic surveys are of a non-destructive and non-contact nature, which means that there will not be any damage to the property being surveyed.

The majority of thermographic surveys undertaken by Air Pressure Testing are typically carried out in conjunction with one of our building air-tightness tests. Whilst the house is depressurised, cold air from the outside will be drawn in through gaps in the structure. Where there is a temperature differential, the effect of any infiltration will be seen by the thermal imaging camera during the thermographic test. This type of thermographic survey is usually carried out from the inside of a property, and is not usually dependent upon particular weather conditions (as for other surveys). Once the leakage path areas are identified, the necessary remedial sealing works can be carried out by the air leakage company prior to the thermographic survey

Thermographic surveys are also carried out to find defects in thermal insulation and other areas of construction defects that represent a heating energy loss. This type of thermographic survey is usually carried out both internally and externally. External thermographic surveys require the correct weather conditions and are generally carried out in the hours of darkness.

The thermographic survey method and the environmental conditions required to enable a satisfactory interpretation of the thermal images in relation to insulation are described in ISO 6781: Thermal insulation - Qualitative detection of thermal irregularities in building envelopes - Infrared method. For most investigations the requirements are as follows:

·          A temperature difference between the inside and outside of a house of at least 5°C over a period of four or more hours, allowing the building mass to be heated. Because of this, best thermographic results are often (although not always) obtained in the heating season (October to March).

·          Diffused light - i.e. minimal sunlight, again for a period of four or more hours, otherwise the solar temperature gain emitted from the surface of a structure could be interpreted as an energy loss.

·          Dry conditions during the thermographic survey. This is not necessarily to protect the equipment, but because any rain on the surface of a building will cool the temperature, potentially leading to inaccurate interpretation of the thermal image during the thermographic survey.

·          Low wind speeds (less than 6m/s or light to moderate breeze)

What information is contained in a report?

Typically, results will be presented as a series of radiometric images (or thermograms) which will physically illustrate areas of heat loss from the building surfaces. Usually the thermograms are presented with the range of surface temperatures measured, and a normal visual image for ease of reference. Potential faults located by the thermographic survey will be marked on the images contained in the thermographic report. These faults can also be added to layout and elevation drawings of the building. A report will provide a professional interpretation of thermograms, and a complete record of the thermographic survey, listing the equipment used, and the environmental conditions at the time of the thermographic survey.

General Notes

 

All components of a building emit infrared radiation - heat that is invisible to the human eye. The infrared (thermographic) camera observes this infrared radiation and displays an image of the thermal patterns electronically during the thermographic survey.

Air Pressure Testing’s Technicians skilled and qualified in building diagnostics can establish from these image which elements have surface heat patterns that signify conductive or convective heat loss/gain.

In building thermography, thermographic surveys tend to be qualitative rather than quantitative. In practice we are seeking comparative areas that exhibit disparate characteristics or thermal patterns, under the same conditions, during the Thermographic test as a means of identification and highlighting areas that require further investigation, remedial attention, or indeed, confirming that a previous fault has been rectified.

An infrared (thermographic) survey may require support by referring to construction drawings, moisture meters, humidity and temperature data-logging, anemometers, barometers, blower doors and smoke pencils, or larger smoke machines

A "quantitative" thermal investigation (thermographic testing) may also help determine the magnitude of an anomaly, by taking temperature readings from the recorded images.

 

Moisture and Mould

 

Extraneous moisture in building fabrics may compromise structural integrity and create an ideal environment for mould growth and insect infestations. Infra Red cameras differentiate between wet and dry materials by exploiting the thermal characteristic of wet materials to store heat very well and warm up or cool down more slowly than dry materials. The growing number of health-related legal actions based upon adverse human health reactions to mould and bacteria is a growing concern for lenders, developers, facilities managers, and building owners and investors. Let Air Pressure Testing alleviate these problems by undertaking a Thermographic survey

 

To remedy problems caused by mould the primary task is to rapidly and accurately locate and remove all sources of moisture and identify the point of ingress. Infra Red cameras can instantly image complete rooms, inspect areas that can’t be surveyed with moisture meters, reveal wet conditions/areas behind surfaces such as enameled walls and wallpaper that don’t readily water stain, track leaks to their source, monitor the drying process, and confirm when a structure is dry. Let Air Pressure Testing find these areas now by undertaking a Thermographic survey

 

Construction Defects

The current trend for using external thermal and structural insulation facade systems, along with stone, stucco, brick veneers and siding as facades on residential as well as commercial buildings invites the possibility of water ingress if the quality of installation is faulty. Thermographic surveys  can detect or verify moisture infiltration in these weatherproofing “barrier” systems, which are usually caused by insufficient detailing such as inadequate or improperly applied flashing or sealants. Without an Thermographic survey the cause of many “mystery” leaks and the detection of moisture migration paths within the walls, floors and ceilings are virtually impossible to find Air pressure testing will help you find these leaks using the latest Thermographic equipment.

 

Roof Leaks

Roof leaks can cause costly damage to a building’s structural integrity, it’s plant and contents. A Thermographic inspection can quickly pinpoint missing or moisture - laden insulation under a flat roof membrane where the insulation needs replacement, permitting the surgical repair of failed areas rather than the much more costly replacement of the entire roof.

 

Roofing Thermographic  survey / inspection is best conducted after sunset, since the wet areas retain the heat absorbed during the day longer than the surrounding dry areas, causing a temperature difference that can be imaged, with the wet areas showing up as hot spots. The Thermographic inspections can also be used to inspect roof decks from inside a building, a highly effective approach when working with metal and ballasted roofing systems, which are difficult or impossible to inspect from above. In this case, the inspection and then Thermographic survey can be performed shortly after sunrise, when the wet areas of the underside of the roof warm up more slowly than dry areas and show up as cold spots. Using Infrared Thermographic survey cameras, capable of recognising temperature differences down to 0.1 °C. using a Thermographic survey such anomalies are easily recorded for future remedial works.

Post-disaster Inspections

 

Post –disaster inspections

using Infrared cameras & Thermographic surveys can be an invaluable method of rapidly identifying remnant hot spots, assuring that the fire is totally extinguished and providing invaluable data for insurance assessors with their Cause and Origin investigations. The clear Infra Red Thermographic survey images of normally invisible diagnostic evidence can assist in the planning and execution of the restoration programme and in the settlement process. After flooding, Infra Red Thermographic surveys can rapidly define the degree of water damage and enhance the drying process by rendering the wet portion of materials visible.

 

Historic / Listed  Buildings

 

Apart from the obvious and established use of locating and defining heat loss (which in itself can be very important in an old building) applications for infra red Thermographic surveys include the location and/or assessment of the following:

·          Structural timber frames behind render, weather-boarding plaster etc.

·          Structural joints, infilled openings etc. behind render on masonry walls

·          Bond failure and moisture ingress in renders, pargetting and harling

·          Lintels, structural failures, snapped headers etc. in brickwork

·          Variations in moisture levels

 

Assessment and inspection by conventional means can often involve the hire of expensive access equipment, temporary scaffolding and disruption of activity. Infrared Thermographic survey

 

Assessment and inspection by conventional means can often involve the hire of expensive access equipment, temporary scaffolding and disruption of activity. Infrared surveys however can often be conducted from ground level. The speed with which an entire street can be assessed by undertaking a Thermographic survey makes it a valuable tool in historical recording. The Thermographic survey images can be electronically captured, stored on disc and printed out in colour. However, infra-red Thermographic surveys is very sensitive to climatic conditions - rain or bright sun on a wall to be investigated may prevent any successful Thermographic assessment, and the temperature gradient required sometimes means that more information on heated buildings can be obtained in winter, and unheated ones (such as churches) may be better having the Thermographic survey at night when the day's solar gain provides sufficient gradation.

Air leak / Heat Loss

 

A significant contribution to heat loss in a building can be caused by poor levels of air tightness/air leakage . The economic consequences can be increased fuel bills and system running costs caused by heating systems having to work harder than necessary to keep the building at a satisfactory temperature. Relatively minor air leakages in a building can lead to draughts and discomfort for householders, patches of condensation on walls and inefficient energy performance. Identifying the source of a draught can be difficult with the air leakage paths often hidden by kitchen units, bath panels or other boarding.

 

Air Leakage testing uses a fan system to depressurise the building. The system is fitted into a frame sealed within an external opening such as a doorframe. Mechanical ventilation openings are sealed with polythene sheet and tape or other appropriate materials. Smoke extract fans/vents are closed but not sealed, and other internal openings (e.g. lift shafts) are left unsealed. As the building is depressurised, colder air is drawn into the building through gaps, crack and holes in the building fabric. These may be visually noted, identified by the use of smoke pencils or recorded on a thermographic survey image.

 

Combining a blower door test with thermography surveys in this way, enables a systematic recording, with visual evidence in the form of thermograms and photographs, of air leakage paths, which can be combined with annotated floor plans in a Thermographic survey report if required.

Sound / Noise Leakage

Noise leaks can be difficult to locate. As noise tends to follow the same path as an air leak – a leak the size of a keyhole will reduce the sound insulation properties of a wall by 10dB – the same method of blower door and thermography /Thermographic surveys can be utilized to track down the cause of noise leaks between rooms or floors.

 

News Letter for Contractors

 

Has it gone amiss? Are the implications understood? Professionals in a number of related disciplines may not know of its function, but since September 2001 thermography/ Thermographic surveys has sat quietly within Part L2 of the building regulations.

Look closely and the references will be found under ‘section 2.1b’. At the time of publication, the technology and techniques required to ascertain the continuity of insulation/thermal bridging within a building-envelope, were just emerging. Whilst the objectives of such an inspection were readily agreed, the methodology and practicality, in terms of cost / benefit, had yet to be developed.

Most industries are adverse to change and the construction world is no different. Tighter building regulations require a stronger more advanced design and build technique, which in turn necessitates higher standards of inspection, quality audits and product approval.
This is why thermography/ Thermographic survey are becoming an integral part of the overall process, as it can provide the documentary evidence to prove compliance.

So what is thermography?
Thermography is a method by which thermal information of an object can be acquired, processed and then displayed in a visual way with the data recorded within the Thermographic surveys remedial works can easily be undertaken. A ‘thermogram’ or ‘thermal image’ can be likened to a picture created with heat, in the same way that a photograph is a picture created with light. All objects warmer than –273° C emit infrared radiation. The power and wavelength of the emission varies with the temperature such that colder objects emit less infrared energy, this becomes easily recognisable when shown as part of a Thermographic survey.

The small additional cost for building handovers including thermography / thermographic surveys is minimal, especially if compared to the expenditure on energy bills during the life cycle of a structure. Controlling the heat loss leads to an immediate financial benefit for the consumer whilst reducing carbon emission and the conservation of fuel and power.

A thermographic building survey not nly shows continuity of insulation but in areas of prolific heat loss can aid with the development of future design details. The importance of this tool will inevitably grow as the general understanding and acceptance spreads; but that’s for the future.

Only professionally qualified thermographic companies or individuals should conduct thermographic building surveys.

The report delivered should include:

·          Reference to building drawings/plans

·          Camera serial number, time and date of survey

·          Environmental Conditions of Survey

·          Locations of where the still IR images were collected

·          Qualitative infrared and digital video showing all buildings external elevations

·          Report pages detailing any specific observed anomalies with analysis

·          Date, signature, calibration certificate of Camera and Thermographers certification number.

 

For further information on thermography building inspections please contact Air Pressure Testing, who will be more than willing to assist with any of your questions or queries.

 

 

What is involved in a thermographic survey?

The type of thermographic survey that is needed depends upon a project's specific needs. The majority of thermographic surveys help locate air leakage paths, and to identify thermal anomalies (a result of poorly installed or missing thermal insulation). All thermographic surveys are of a non-destructive and non-contact nature, which means that there will not be any damage to the property being surveyed.

The majority of thermographic surveys undertaken by Air Pressure Testing are typically carried out in conjunction with one of our building air-tightness tests. Whilst the house is depressurised, cold air from the outside will be drawn in through gaps in the structure. Where there is a temperature differential, the effect of any infiltration will be seen by the thermal imaging camera during the thermographic test. This type of thermographic survey is usually carried out from the inside of a property, and is not usually dependent upon particular weather conditions (as for other surveys). Once the leakage path areas are identified, the necessary remedial sealing works can be carried out by the air leakage company prior to the thermographic survey

Thermographic surveys are also carried out to find defects in thermal insulation and other areas of construction defects that represent a heating energy loss. This type of thermographic survey is usually carried out both internally and externally. External thermographic surveys require the correct weather conditions and are generally carried out in the hours of darkness.

The thermographic survey method and the environmental conditions required to enable a satisfactory interpretation of the thermal images in relation to insulation are described in ISO 6781: Thermal insulation - Qualitative detection of thermal irregularities in building envelopes - Infrared method. For most investigations the requirements are as follows:

·          A temperature difference between the inside and outside of a house of at least 5°C over a period of four or more hours, allowing the building mass to be heated. Because of this, best thermographic results are often (although not always) obtained in the heating season (October to March).

·          Diffused light - i.e. minimal sunlight, again for a period of four or more hours, otherwise the solar temperature gain emitted from the surface of a structure could be interpreted as an energy loss.

·          Dry conditions during the thermographic survey. This is not necessarily to protect the equipment, but because any rain on the surface of a building will cool the temperature, potentially leading to inaccurate interpretation of the thermal image during the thermographic survey.

·          Low wind speeds (less than 6m/s or light to moderate breeze)

What information is contained in a report?

Typically, results will be presented as a series of radiometric images (or thermograms) which will physically illustrate areas of heat loss from the building surfaces. Usually the thermograms are presented with the range of surface temperatures measured, and a normal visual image for ease of reference. Potential faults located by the thermographic survey will be marked on the images contained in the thermographic report. These faults can also be added to layout and elevation drawings of the building. A report will provide a professional interpretation of thermograms, and a complete record of the thermographic survey, listing the equipment used, and the environmental conditions at the time of the thermographic survey.

General Notes

 

All components of a building emit infrared radiation - heat that is invisible to the human eye. The infrared (thermographic) camera observes this infrared radiation and displays an image of the thermal patterns electronically during the thermographic survey.

Air Pressure Testing’s Technicians skilled and qualified in building diagnostics can establish from these image which elements have surface heat patterns that signify conductive or convective heat loss/gain.

In building thermography, thermographic surveys tend to be qualitative rather than quantitative. In practice we are seeking comparative areas that exhibit disparate characteristics or thermal patterns, under the same conditions, during the Thermographic test as a means of identification and highlighting areas that require further investigation, remedial attention, or indeed, confirming that a previous fault has been rectified.

An infrared (thermographic) survey may require support by referring to construction drawings, moisture meters, humidity and temperature data-logging, anemometers, barometers, blower doors and smoke pencils, or larger smoke machines

A "quantitative" thermal investigation (thermographic testing) may also help determine the magnitude of an anomaly, by taking temperature readings from the recorded images.

 

Moisture and Mould

 

Extraneous moisture in building fabrics may compromise structural integrity and create an ideal environment for mould growth and insect infestations. Infra Red cameras differentiate between wet and dry materials by exploiting the thermal characteristic of wet materials to store heat very well and warm up or cool down more slowly than dry materials. The growing number of health-related legal actions based upon adverse human health reactions to mould and bacteria is a growing concern for lenders, developers, facilities managers, and building owners and investors. Let Air Pressure Testing alleviate these problems by undertaking a Thermographic survey

 

To remedy problems caused by mould the primary task is to rapidly and accurately locate and remove all sources of moisture and identify the point of ingress. Infra Red cameras can instantly image complete rooms, inspect areas that can’t be surveyed with moisture meters, reveal wet conditions/areas behind surfaces such as enameled walls and wallpaper that don’t readily water stain, track leaks to their source, monitor the drying process, and confirm when a structure is dry. Let Air Pressure Testing find these areas now by undertaking a Thermographic survey

 

Construction Defects

The current trend for using external thermal and structural insulation facade systems, along with stone, stucco, brick veneers and siding as facades on residential as well as commercial buildings invites the possibility of water ingress if the quality of installation is faulty. Thermographic surveys  can detect or verify moisture infiltration in these weatherproofing “barrier” systems, which are usually caused by insufficient detailing such as inadequate or improperly applied flashing or sealants. Without an Thermographic survey the cause of many “mystery” leaks and the detection of moisture migration paths within the walls, floors and ceilings are virtually impossible to find Air pressure testing will help you find these leaks using the latest Thermographic equipment.

 

Roof Leaks

Roof leaks can cause costly damage to a building’s structural integrity, it’s plant and contents. A Thermographic inspection can quickly pinpoint missing or moisture - laden insulation under a flat roof membrane where the insulation needs replacement, permitting the surgical repair of failed areas rather than the much more costly replacement of the entire roof.

 

Roofing Thermographic  survey / inspection is best conducted after sunset, since the wet areas retain the heat absorbed during the day longer than the surrounding dry areas, causing a temperature difference that can be imaged, with the wet areas showing up as hot spots. The Thermographic inspections can also be used to inspect roof decks from inside a building, a highly effective approach when working with metal and ballasted roofing systems, which are difficult or impossible to inspect from above. In this case, the inspection and then Thermographic survey can be performed shortly after sunrise, when the wet areas of the underside of the roof warm up more slowly than dry areas and show up as cold spots. Using Infrared Thermographic survey cameras, capable of recognising temperature differences down to 0.1 °C. using a Thermographic survey such anomalies are easily recorded for future remedial works.

Post-disaster Inspections

 

Post –disaster inspections

using Infrared cameras & Thermographic surveys can be an invaluable method of rapidly identifying remnant hot spots, assuring that the fire is totally extinguished and providing invaluable data for insurance assessors with their Cause and Origin investigations. The clear Infra Red Thermographic survey images of normally invisible diagnostic evidence can assist in the planning and execution of the restoration programme and in the settlement process. After flooding, Infra Red Thermographic surveys can rapidly define the degree of water damage and enhance the drying process by rendering the wet portion of materials visible.

 

Historic / Listed  Buildings

 

Apart from the obvious and established use of locating and defining heat loss (which in itself can be very important in an old building) applications for infra red Thermographic surveys include the location and/or assessment of the following:

·          Structural timber frames behind render, weather-boarding plaster etc.

·          Structural joints, infilled openings etc. behind render on masonry walls

·          Bond failure and moisture ingress in renders, pargetting and harling

·          Lintels, structural failures, snapped headers etc. in brickwork

·          Variations in moisture levels

 

Assessment and inspection by conventional means can often involve the hire of expensive access equipment, temporary scaffolding and disruption of activity. Infrared Thermographic survey

 

Assessment and inspection by conventional means can often involve the hire of expensive access equipment, temporary scaffolding and disruption of activity. Infrared surveys however can often be conducted from ground level. The speed with which an entire street can be assessed by undertaking a Thermographic survey makes it a valuable tool in historical recording. The Thermographic survey images can be electronically captured, stored on disc and printed out in colour. However, infra-red Thermographic surveys is very sensitive to climatic conditions - rain or bright sun on a wall to be investigated may prevent any successful Thermographic assessment, and the temperature gradient required sometimes means that more information on heated buildings can be obtained in winter, and unheated ones (such as churches) may be better having the Thermographic survey at night when the day's solar gain provides sufficient gradation.

Air leak / Heat Loss

 

A significant contribution to heat loss in a building can be caused by poor levels of air tightness/air leakage . The economic consequences can be increased fuel bills and system running costs caused by heating systems having to work harder than necessary to keep the building at a satisfactory temperature. Relatively minor air leakages in a building can lead to draughts and discomfort for householders, patches of condensation on walls and inefficient energy performance. Identifying the source of a draught can be difficult with the air leakage paths often hidden by kitchen units, bath panels or other boarding.

 

Air Leakage testing uses a fan system to depressurise the building. The system is fitted into a frame sealed within an external opening such as a doorframe. Mechanical ventilation openings are sealed with polythene sheet and tape or other appropriate materials. Smoke extract fans/vents are closed but not sealed, and other internal openings (e.g. lift shafts) are left unsealed. As the building is depressurised, colder air is drawn into the building through gaps, crack and holes in the building fabric. These may be visually noted, identified by the use of smoke pencils or recorded on a thermographic survey image.

 

Combining a blower door test with thermography surveys in this way, enables a systematic recording, with visual evidence in the form of thermograms and photographs, of air leakage paths, which can be combined with annotated floor plans in a Thermographic survey report if required.

Sound / Noise Leakage

Noise leaks can be difficult to locate. As noise tends to follow the same path as an air leak – a leak the size of a keyhole will reduce the sound insulation properties of a wall by 10dB – the same method of blower door and thermography /Thermographic surveys can be utilized to track down the cause of noise leaks between rooms or floors.

 

News Letter for Contractors

 

Has it gone amiss? Are the implications understood? Professionals in a number of related disciplines may not know of its function, but since September 2001 thermography/ Thermographic surveys has sat quietly within Part L2 of the building regulations.

Look closely and the references will be found under ‘section 2.1b’. At the time of publication, the technology and techniques required to ascertain the continuity of insulation/thermal bridging within a building-envelope, were just emerging. Whilst the objectives of such an inspection were readily agreed, the methodology and practicality, in terms of cost / benefit, had yet to be developed.

Most industries are adverse to change and the construction world is no different. Tighter building regulations require a stronger more advanced design and build technique, which in turn necessitates higher standards of inspection, quality audits and product approval.
This is why thermography/ Thermographic survey are becoming an integral part of the overall process, as it can provide the documentary evidence to prove compliance.

So what is thermography?
Thermography is a method by which thermal information of an object can be acquired, processed and then displayed in a visual way with the data recorded within the Thermographic surveys remedial works can easily be undertaken. A ‘thermogram’ or ‘thermal image’ can be likened to a picture created with heat, in the same way that a photograph is a picture created with light. All objects warmer than –273° C emit infrared radiation. The power and wavelength of the emission varies with the temperature such that colder objects emit less infrared energy, this becomes easily recognisable when shown as part of a Thermographic survey.

The small additional cost for building handovers including thermography / thermographic surveys is minimal, especially if compared to the expenditure on energy bills during the life cycle of a structure. Controlling the heat loss leads to an immediate financial benefit for the consumer whilst reducing carbon emission and the conservation of fuel and power.

A thermographic building survey not nly shows continuity of insulation but in areas of prolific heat loss can aid with the development of future design details. The importance of this tool will inevitably grow as the general understanding and acceptance spreads; but that’s for the future.

Only professionally qualified thermographic companies or individuals should conduct thermographic building surveys.

The report delivered should include:

·          Reference to building drawings/plans

·          Camera serial number, time and date of survey

·          Environmental Conditions of Survey

·          Locations of where the still IR images were collected

·          Qualitative infrared and digital video showing all buildings external elevations

·          Report pages detailing any specific observed anomalies with analysis

·          Date, signature, calibration certificate of Camera and Thermographers certification number.

 

For further information on thermography building inspections please contact Air Pressure Testing, who will be more than willing to assist with any of your questions or queries.

 

 

What is involved in a thermographic survey?

The type of thermographic survey that is needed depends upon a project's specific needs. The majority of thermographic surveys help locate air leakage paths, and to identify thermal anomalies (a result of poorly installed or missing thermal insulation). All thermographic surveys are of a non-destructive and non-contact nature, which means that there will not be any damage to the property being surveyed.

The majority of thermographic surveys undertaken by Air Pressure Testing are typically carried out in conjunction with one of our building air-tightness tests. Whilst the house is depressurised, cold air from the outside will be drawn in through gaps in the structure. Where there is a temperature differential, the effect of any infiltration will be seen by the thermal imaging camera during the thermographic test. This type of thermographic survey is usually carried out from the inside of a property, and is not usually dependent upon particular weather conditions (as for other surveys). Once the leakage path areas are identified, the necessary remedial sealing works can be carried out by the air leakage company prior to the thermographic survey

Thermographic surveys are also carried out to find defects in thermal insulation and other areas of construction defects that represent a heating energy loss. This type of thermographic survey is usually carried out both internally and externally. External thermographic surveys require the correct weather conditions and are generally carried out in the hours of darkness.

The thermographic survey method and the environmental conditions required to enable a satisfactory interpretation of the thermal images in relation to insulation are described in ISO 6781: Thermal insulation - Qualitative detection of thermal irregularities in building envelopes - Infrared method. For most investigations the requirements are as follows:

·          A temperature difference between the inside and outside of a house of at least 5°C over a period of four or more hours, allowing the building mass to be heated. Because of this, best thermographic results are often (although not always) obtained in the heating season (October to March).

·          Diffused light - i.e. minimal sunlight, again for a period of four or more hours, otherwise the solar temperature gain emitted from the surface of a structure could be interpreted as an energy loss.

·          Dry conditions during the thermographic survey. This is not necessarily to protect the equipment, but because any rain on the surface of a building will cool the temperature, potentially leading to inaccurate interpretation of the thermal image during the thermographic survey.

·          Low wind speeds (less than 6m/s or light to moderate breeze)

What information is contained in a report?

Typically, results will be presented as a series of radiometric images (or thermograms) which will physically illustrate areas of heat loss from the building surfaces. Usually the thermograms are presented with the range of surface temperatures measured, and a normal visual image for ease of reference. Potential faults located by the thermographic survey will be marked on the images contained in the thermographic report. These faults can also be added to layout and elevation drawings of the building. A report will provide a professional interpretation of thermograms, and a complete record of the thermographic survey, listing the equipment used, and the environmental conditions at the time of the thermographic survey.

General Notes

 

All components of a building emit infrared radiation - heat that is invisible to the human eye. The infrared (thermographic) camera observes this infrared radiation and displays an image of the thermal patterns electronically during the thermographic survey.

Air Pressure Testing’s Technicians skilled and qualified in building diagnostics can establish from these image which elements have surface heat patterns that signify conductive or convective heat loss/gain.

In building thermography, thermographic surveys tend to be qualitative rather than quantitative. In practice we are seeking comparative areas that exhibit disparate characteristics or thermal patterns, under the same conditions, during the Thermographic test as a means of identification and highlighting areas that require further investigation, remedial attention, or indeed, confirming that a previous fault has been rectified.

An infrared (thermographic) survey may require support by referring to construction drawings, moisture meters, humidity and temperature data-logging, anemometers, barometers, blower doors and smoke pencils, or larger smoke machines

A "quantitative" thermal investigation (thermographic testing) may also help determine the magnitude of an anomaly, by taking temperature readings from the recorded images.

 

Moisture and Mould

 

Extraneous moisture in building fabrics may compromise structural integrity and create an ideal environment for mould growth and insect infestations. Infra Red cameras differentiate between wet and dry materials by exploiting the thermal characteristic of wet materials to store heat very well and warm up or cool down more slowly than dry materials. The growing number of health-related legal actions based upon adverse human health reactions to mould and bacteria is a growing concern for lenders, developers, facilities managers, and building owners and investors. Let Air Pressure Testing alleviate these problems by undertaking a Thermographic survey

 

To remedy problems caused by mould the primary task is to rapidly and accurately locate and remove all sources of moisture and identify the point of ingress. Infra Red cameras can instantly image complete rooms, inspect areas that can’t be surveyed with moisture meters, reveal wet conditions/areas behind surfaces such as enameled walls and wallpaper that don’t readily water stain, track leaks to their source, monitor the drying process, and confirm when a structure is dry. Let Air Pressure Testing find these areas now by undertaking a Thermographic survey

 

Construction Defects

The current trend for using external thermal and structural insulation facade systems, along with stone, stucco, brick veneers and siding as facades on residential as well as commercial buildings invites the possibility of water ingress if the quality of installation is faulty. Thermographic surveys  can detect or verify moisture infiltration in these weatherproofing “barrier” systems, which are usually caused by insufficient detailing such as inadequate or improperly applied flashing or sealants. Without an Thermographic survey the cause of many “mystery” leaks and the detection of moisture migration paths within the walls, floors and ceilings are virtually impossible to find Air pressure testing will help you find these leaks using the latest Thermographic equipment.

 

Roof Leaks

Roof leaks can cause costly damage to a building’s structural integrity, it’s plant and contents. A Thermographic inspection can quickly pinpoint missing or moisture - laden insulation under a flat roof membrane where the insulation needs replacement, permitting the surgical repair of failed areas rather than the much more costly replacement of the entire roof.

 

Roofing Thermographic  survey / inspection is best conducted after sunset, since the wet areas retain the heat absorbed during the day longer than the surrounding dry areas, causing a temperature difference that can be imaged, with the wet areas showing up as hot spots. The Thermographic inspections can also be used to inspect roof decks from inside a building, a highly effective approach when working with metal and ballasted roofing systems, which are difficult or impossible to inspect from above. In this case, the inspection and then Thermographic survey can be performed shortly after sunrise, when the wet areas of the underside of the roof warm up more slowly than dry areas and show up as cold spots. Using Infrared Thermographic survey cameras, capable of recognising temperature differences down to 0.1 °C. using a Thermographic survey such anomalies are easily recorded for future remedial works.

Post-disaster Inspections

 

Post –disaster inspections

using Infrared cameras & Thermographic surveys can be an invaluable method of rapidly identifying remnant hot spots, assuring that the fire is totally extinguished and providing invaluable data for insurance assessors with their Cause and Origin investigations. The clear Infra Red Thermographic survey images of normally invisible diagnostic evidence can assist in the planning and execution of the restoration programme and in the settlement process. After flooding, Infra Red Thermographic surveys can rapidly define the degree of water damage and enhance the drying process by rendering the wet portion of materials visible.

 

Historic / Listed  Buildings

 

Apart from the obvious and established use of locating and defining heat loss (which in itself can be very important in an old building) applications for infra red Thermographic surveys include the location and/or assessment of the following:

·          Structural timber frames behind render, weather-boarding plaster etc.

·          Structural joints, infilled openings etc. behind render on masonry walls

·          Bond failure and moisture ingress in renders, pargetting and harling

·          Lintels, structural failures, snapped headers etc. in brickwork

·          Variations in moisture levels

 

Assessment and inspection by conventional means can often involve the hire of expensive access equipment, temporary scaffolding and disruption of activity. Infrared Thermographic survey

 

Assessment and inspection by conventional means can often involve the hire of expensive access equipment, temporary scaffolding and disruption of activity. Infrared surveys however can often be conducted from ground level. The speed with which an entire street can be assessed by undertaking a Thermographic survey makes it a valuable tool in historical recording. The Thermographic survey images can be electronically captured, stored on disc and printed out in colour. However, infra-red Thermographic surveys is very sensitive to climatic conditions - rain or bright sun on a wall to be investigated may prevent any successful Thermographic assessment, and the temperature gradient required sometimes means that more information on heated buildings can be obtained in winter, and unheated ones (such as churches) may be better having the Thermographic survey at night when the day's solar gain provides sufficient gradation.

Air leak / Heat Loss

 

A significant contribution to heat loss in a building can be caused by poor levels of air tightness/air leakage . The economic consequences can be increased fuel bills and system running costs caused by heating systems having to work harder than necessary to keep the building at a satisfactory temperature. Relatively minor air leakages in a building can lead to draughts and discomfort for householders, patches of condensation on walls and inefficient energy performance. Identifying the source of a draught can be difficult with the air leakage paths often hidden by kitchen units, bath panels or other boarding.

 

Air Leakage testing uses a fan system to depressurise the building. The system is fitted into a frame sealed within an external opening such as a doorframe. Mechanical ventilation openings are sealed with polythene sheet and tape or other appropriate materials. Smoke extract fans/vents are closed but not sealed, and other internal openings (e.g. lift shafts) are left unsealed. As the building is depressurised, colder air is drawn into the building through gaps, crack and holes in the building fabric. These may be visually noted, identified by the use of smoke pencils or recorded on a thermographic survey image.

 

Combining a blower door test with thermography surveys in this way, enables a systematic recording, with visual evidence in the form of thermograms and photographs, of air leakage paths, which can be combined with annotated floor plans in a Thermographic survey report if required.

Sound / Noise Leakage

Noise leaks can be difficult to locate. As noise tends to follow the same path as an air leak – a leak the size of a keyhole will reduce the sound insulation properties of a wall by 10dB – the same method of blower door and thermography /Thermographic surveys can be utilized to track down the cause of noise leaks between rooms or floors.

 

News Letter for Contractors

 

Has it gone amiss? Are the implications understood? Professionals in a number of related disciplines may not know of its function, but since September 2001 thermography/ Thermographic surveys has sat quietly within Part L2 of the building regulations.

Look closely and the references will be found under ‘section 2.1b’. At the time of publication, the technology and techniques required to ascertain the continuity of insulation/thermal bridging within a building-envelope, were just emerging. Whilst the objectives of such an inspection were readily agreed, the methodology and practicality, in terms of cost / benefit, had yet to be developed.

Most industries are adverse to change and the construction world is no different. Tighter building regulations require a stronger more advanced design and build technique, which in turn necessitates higher standards of inspection, quality audits and product approval.
This is why thermography/ Thermographic survey are becoming an integral part of the overall process, as it can provide the documentary evidence to prove compliance.

So what is thermography?
Thermography is a method by which thermal information of an object can be acquired, processed and then displayed in a visual way with the data recorded within the Thermographic surveys remedial works can easily be undertaken. A ‘thermogram’ or ‘thermal image’ can be likened to a picture created with heat, in the same way that a photograph is a picture created with light. All objects warmer than –273° C emit infrared radiation. The power and wavelength of the emission varies with the temperature such that colder objects emit less infrared energy, this becomes easily recognisable when shown as part of a Thermographic survey.

The small additional cost for building handovers including thermography / thermographic surveys is minimal, especially if compared to the expenditure on energy bills during the life cycle of a structure. Controlling the heat loss leads to an immediate financial benefit for the consumer whilst reducing carbon emission and the conservation of fuel and power.

A thermographic building survey not nly shows continuity of insulation but in areas of prolific heat loss can aid with the development of future design details. The importance of this tool will inevitably grow as the general understanding and acceptance spreads; but that’s for the future.

Only professionally qualified thermographic companies or individuals should conduct thermographic building surveys.

The report delivered should include:

·          Reference to building drawings/plans

·          Camera serial number, time and date of survey

·          Environmental Conditions of Survey

·          Locations of where the still IR images were collected

·          Qualitative infrared and digital video showing all buildings external elevations

·          Report pages detailing any specific observed anomalies with analysis

·          Date, signature, calibration certificate of Camera and Thermographers certification number.

 

For further information on thermography building inspections please contact Air Pressure Testing, who will be more than willing to assist with any of your questions or queries.

 

 

What is involved in a thermographic survey?

The type of thermographic survey that is needed depends upon a project's specific needs. The majority of thermographic surveys help locate air leakage paths, and to identify thermal anomalies (a result of poorly installed or missing thermal insulation). All thermographic surveys are of a non-destructive and non-contact nature, which means that there will not be any damage to the property being surveyed.

The majority of thermographic surveys undertaken by Air Pressure Testing are typically carried out in conjunction with one of our building air-tightness tests. Whilst the house is depressurised, cold air from the outside will be drawn in through gaps in the structure. Where there is a temperature differential, the effect of any infiltration will be seen by the thermal imaging camera during the thermographic test. This type of thermographic survey is usually carried out from the inside of a property, and is not usually dependent upon particular weather conditions (as for other surveys). Once the leakage path areas are identified, the necessary remedial sealing works can be carried out by the air leakage company prior to the thermographic survey

Thermographic surveys are also carried out to find defects in thermal insulation and other areas of construction defects that represent a heating energy loss. This type of thermographic survey is usually carried out both internally and externally. External thermographic surveys require the correct weather conditions and are generally carried out in the hours of darkness.

The thermographic survey method and the environmental conditions required to enable a satisfactory interpretation of the thermal images in relation to insulation are described in ISO 6781: Thermal insulation - Qualitative detection of thermal irregularities in building envelopes - Infrared method. For most investigations the requirements are as follows:

·          A temperature difference between the inside and outside of a house of at least 5°C over a period of four or more hours, allowing the building mass to be heated. Because of this, best thermographic results are often (although not always) obtained in the heating season (October to March).

·          Diffused light - i.e. minimal sunlight, again for a period of four or more hours, otherwise the solar temperature gain emitted from the surface of a structure could be interpreted as an energy loss.

·          Dry conditions during the thermographic survey. This is not necessarily to protect the equipment, but because any rain on the surface of a building will cool the temperature, potentially leading to inaccurate interpretation of the thermal image during the thermographic survey.

·          Low wind speeds (less than 6m/s or light to moderate breeze)

What information is contained in a report?

Typically, results will be presented as a series of radiometric images (or thermograms) which will physically illustrate areas of heat loss from the building surfaces. Usually the thermograms are presented with the range of surface temperatures measured, and a normal visual image for ease of reference. Potential faults located by the thermographic survey will be marked on the images contained in the thermographic report. These faults can also be added to layout and elevation drawings of the building. A report will provide a professional interpretation of thermograms, and a complete record of the thermographic survey, listing the equipment used, and the environmental conditions at the time of the thermographic survey.

General Notes

 

All components of a building emit infrared radiation - heat that is invisible to the human eye. The infrared (thermographic) camera observes this infrared radiation and displays an image of the thermal patterns electronically during the thermographic survey.

Air Pressure Testing’s Technicians skilled and qualified in building diagnostics can establish from these image which elements have surface heat patterns that signify conductive or convective heat loss/gain.

In building thermography, thermographic surveys tend to be qualitative rather than quantitative. In practice we are seeking comparative areas that exhibit disparate characteristics or thermal patterns, under the same conditions, during the Thermographic test as a means of identification and highlighting areas that require further investigation, remedial attention, or indeed, confirming that a previous fault has been rectified.

An infrared (thermographic) survey may require support by referring to construction drawings, moisture meters, humidity and temperature data-logging, anemometers, barometers, blower doors and smoke pencils, or larger smoke machines

A "quantitative" thermal investigation (thermographic testing) may also help determine the magnitude of an anomaly, by taking temperature readings from the recorded images.

 

Moisture and Mould

 

Extraneous moisture in building fabrics may compromise structural integrity and create an ideal environment for mould growth and insect infestations. Infra Red cameras differentiate between wet and dry materials by exploiting the thermal characteristic of wet materials to store heat very well and warm up or cool down more slowly than dry materials. The growing number of health-related legal actions based upon adverse human health reactions to mould and bacteria is a growing concern for lenders, developers, facilities managers, and building owners and investors. Let Air Pressure Testing alleviate these problems by undertaking a Thermographic survey

 

To remedy problems caused by mould the primary task is to rapidly and accurately locate and remove all sources of moisture and identify the point of ingress. Infra Red cameras can instantly image complete rooms, inspect areas that can’t be surveyed with moisture meters, reveal wet conditions/areas behind surfaces such as enameled walls and wallpaper that don’t readily water stain, track leaks to their source, monitor the drying process, and confirm when a structure is dry. Let Air Pressure Testing find these areas now by undertaking a Thermographic survey

 

Construction Defects

The current trend for using external thermal and structural insulation facade systems, along with stone, stucco, brick veneers and siding as facades on residential as well as commercial buildings invites the possibility of water ingress if the quality of installation is faulty. Thermographic surveys  can detect or verify moisture infiltration in these weatherproofing “barrier” systems, which are usually caused by insufficient detailing such as inadequate or improperly applied flashing or sealants. Without an Thermographic survey the cause of many “mystery” leaks and the detection of moisture migration paths within the walls, floors and ceilings are virtually impossible to find Air pressure testing will help you find these leaks using the latest Thermographic equipment.

 

Roof Leaks

Roof leaks can cause costly damage to a building’s structural integrity, it’s plant and contents. A Thermographic inspection can quickly pinpoint missing or moisture - laden insulation under a flat roof membrane where the insulation needs replacement, permitting the surgical repair of failed areas rather than the much more costly replacement of the entire roof.

 

Roofing Thermographic  survey / inspection is best conducted after sunset, since the wet areas retain the heat absorbed during the day longer than the surrounding dry areas, causing a temperature difference that can be imaged, with the wet areas showing up as hot spots. The Thermographic inspections can also be used to inspect roof decks from inside a building, a highly effective approach when working with metal and ballasted roofing systems, which are difficult or impossible to inspect from above. In this case, the inspection and then Thermographic survey can be performed shortly after sunrise, when the wet areas of the underside of the roof warm up more slowly than dry areas and show up as cold spots. Using Infrared Thermographic survey cameras, capable of recognising temperature differences down to 0.1 °C. using a Thermographic survey such anomalies are easily recorded for future remedial works.

Post-disaster Inspections

 

Post –disaster inspections

using Infrared cameras & Thermographic surveys can be an invaluable method of rapidly identifying remnant hot spots, assuring that the fire is totally extinguished and providing invaluable data for insurance assessors with their Cause and Origin investigations. The clear Infra Red Thermographic survey images of normally invisible diagnostic evidence can assist in the planning and execution of the restoration programme and in the settlement process. After flooding, Infra Red Thermographic surveys can rapidly define the degree of water damage and enhance the drying process by rendering the wet portion of materials visible.

 

Historic / Listed  Buildings

 

Apart from the obvious and established use of locating and defining heat loss (which in itself can be very important in an old building) applications for infra red Thermographic surveys include the location and/or assessment of the following:

·          Structural timber frames behind render, weather-boarding plaster etc.

·          Structural joints, infilled openings etc. behind render on masonry walls

·          Bond failure and moisture ingress in renders, pargetting and harling

·          Lintels, structural failures, snapped headers etc. in brickwork

·          Variations in moisture levels

 

Assessment and inspection by conventional means can often involve the hire of expensive access equipment, temporary scaffolding and disruption of activity. Infrared Thermographic survey

 

Assessment and inspection by conventional means can often involve the hire of expensive access equipment, temporary scaffolding and disruption of activity. Infrared surveys however can often be conducted from ground level. The speed with which an entire street can be assessed by undertaking a Thermographic survey makes it a valuable tool in historical recording. The Thermographic survey images can be electronically captured, stored on disc and printed out in colour. However, infra-red Thermographic surveys is very sensitive to climatic conditions - rain or bright sun on a wall to be investigated may prevent any successful Thermographic assessment, and the temperature gradient required sometimes means that more information on heated buildings can be obtained in winter, and unheated ones (such as churches) may be better having the Thermographic survey at night when the day's solar gain provides sufficient gradation.

Air leak / Heat Loss

 

A significant contribution to heat loss in a building can be caused by poor levels of air tightness/air leakage . The economic consequences can be increased fuel bills and system running costs caused by heating systems having to work harder than necessary to keep the building at a satisfactory temperature. Relatively minor air leakages in a building can lead to draughts and discomfort for householders, patches of condensation on walls and inefficient energy performance. Identifying the source of a draught can be difficult with the air leakage paths often hidden by kitchen units, bath panels or other boarding.

 

Air Leakage testing uses a fan system to depressurise the building. The system is fitted into a frame sealed within an external opening such as a doorframe. Mechanical ventilation openings are sealed with polythene sheet and tape or other appropriate materials. Smoke extract fans/vents are closed but not sealed, and other internal openings (e.g. lift shafts) are left unsealed. As the building is depressurised, colder air is drawn into the building through gaps, crack and holes in the building fabric. These may be visually noted, identified by the use of smoke pencils or recorded on a thermographic survey image.

 

Combining a blower door test with thermography surveys in this way, enables a systematic recording, with visual evidence in the form of thermograms and photographs, of air leakage paths, which can be combined with annotated floor plans in a Thermographic survey report if required.

Sound / Noise Leakage

Noise leaks can be difficult to locate. As noise tends to follow the same path as an air leak – a leak the size of a keyhole will reduce the sound insulation properties of a wall by 10dB – the same method of blower door and thermography /Thermographic surveys can be utilized to track down the cause of noise leaks between rooms or floors.

 

News Letter for Contractors

 

Has it gone amiss? Are the implications understood? Professionals in a number of related disciplines may not know of its function, but since September 2001 thermography/ Thermographic surveys has sat quietly within Part L2 of the building regulations.

Look closely and the references will be found under ‘section 2.1b’. At the time of publication, the technology and techniques required to ascertain the continuity of insulation/thermal bridging within a building-envelope, were just emerging. Whilst the objectives of such an inspection were readily agreed, the methodology and practicality, in terms of cost / benefit, had yet to be developed.

Most industries are adverse to change and the construction world is no different. Tighter building regulations require a stronger more advanced design and build technique, which in turn necessitates higher standards of inspection, quality audits and product approval.
This is why thermography/ Thermographic survey are becoming an integral part of the overall process, as it can provide the documentary evidence to prove compliance.

So what is thermography?
Thermography is a method by which thermal information of an object can be acquired, processed and then displayed in a visual way with the data recorded within the Thermographic surveys remedial works can easily be undertaken. A ‘thermogram’ or ‘thermal image’ can be likened to a picture created with heat, in the same way that a photograph is a picture created with light. All objects warmer than –273° C emit infrared radiation. The power and wavelength of the emission varies with the temperature such that colder objects emit less infrared energy, this becomes easily recognisable when shown as part of a Thermographic survey.

The small additional cost for building handovers including thermography / thermographic surveys is minimal, especially if compared to the expenditure on energy bills during the life cycle of a structure. Controlling the heat loss leads to an immediate financial benefit for the consumer whilst reducing carbon emission and the conservation of fuel and power.

A thermographic building survey not nly shows continuity of insulation but in areas of prolific heat loss can aid with the development of future design details. The importance of this tool will inevitably grow as the general understanding and acceptance spreads; but that’s for the future.

Only professionally qualified thermographic companies or individuals should conduct thermographic building surveys.

The report delivered should include:

·          Reference to building drawings/plans

·          Camera serial number, time and date of survey

·          Environmental Conditions of Survey

·          Locations of where the still IR images were collected

·          Qualitative infrared and digital video showing all buildings external elevations

·          Report pages detailing any specific observed anomalies with analysis

·          Date, signature, calibration certificate of Camera and Thermographers certification number.

 

For further information on thermography building inspections please contact Air Pressure Testing, who will be more than willing to assist with any of your questions or queries.

 

 

What is involved in a thermographic survey?

The type of thermographic survey that is needed depends upon a project's specific needs. The majority of thermographic surveys help locate air leakage paths, and to identify thermal anomalies (a result of poorly installed or missing thermal insulation). All thermographic surveys are of a non-destructive and non-contact nature, which means that there will not be any damage to the property being surveyed.

The majority of thermographic surveys undertaken by Air Pressure Testing are typically carried out in conjunction with one of our building air-tightness tests. Whilst the house is depressurised, cold air from the outside will be drawn in through gaps in the structure. Where there is a temperature differential, the effect of any infiltration will be seen by the thermal imaging camera during the thermographic test. This type of thermographic survey is usually carried out from the inside of a property, and is not usually dependent upon particular weather conditions (as for other surveys). Once the leakage path areas are identified, the necessary remedial sealing works can be carried out by the air leakage company prior to the thermographic survey

Thermographic surveys are also carried out to find defects in thermal insulation and other areas of construction defects that represent a heating energy loss. This type of thermographic survey is usually carried out both internally and externally. External thermographic surveys require the correct weather conditions and are generally carried out in the hours of darkness.

The thermographic survey method and the environmental conditions required to enable a satisfactory interpretation of the thermal images in relation to insulation are described in ISO 6781: Thermal insulation - Qualitative detection of thermal irregularities in building envelopes - Infrared method. For most investigations the requirements are as follows:

·          A temperature difference between the inside and outside of a house of at least 5°C over a period of four or more hours, allowing the building mass to be heated. Because of this, best thermographic results are often (although not always) obtained in the heating season (October to March).

·          Diffused light - i.e. minimal sunlight, again for a period of four or more hours, otherwise the solar temperature gain emitted from the surface of a structure could be interpreted as an energy loss.

·          Dry conditions during the thermographic survey. This is not necessarily to protect the equipment, but because any rain on the surface of a building will cool the temperature, potentially leading to inaccurate interpretation of the thermal image during the thermographic survey.

·          Low wind speeds (less than 6m/s or light to moderate breeze)

What information is contained in a report?

Typically, results will be presented as a series of radiometric images (or thermograms) which will physically illustrate areas of heat loss from the building surfaces. Usually the thermograms are presented with the range of surface temperatures measured, and a normal visual image for ease of reference. Potential faults located by the thermographic survey will be marked on the images contained in the thermographic report. These faults can also be added to layout and elevation drawings of the building. A report will provide a professional interpretation of thermograms, and a complete record of the thermographic survey, listing the equipment used, and the environmental conditions at the time of the thermographic survey.

General Notes

 

All components of a building emit infrared radiation - heat that is invisible to the human eye. The infrared (thermographic) camera observes this infrared radiation and displays an image of the thermal patterns electronically during the thermographic survey.

Air Pressure Testing’s Technicians skilled and qualified in building diagnostics can establish from these image which elements have surface heat patterns that signify conductive or convective heat loss/gain.

In building thermography, thermographic surveys tend to be qualitative rather than quantitative. In practice we are seeking comparative areas that exhibit disparate characteristics or thermal patterns, under the same conditions, during the Thermographic test as a means of identification and highlighting areas that require further investigation, remedial attention, or indeed, confirming that a previous fault has been rectified.

An infrared (thermographic) survey may require support by referring to construction drawings, moisture meters, humidity and temperature data-logging, anemometers, barometers, blower doors and smoke pencils, or larger smoke machines

A "quantitative" thermal investigation (thermographic testing) may also help determine the magnitude of an anomaly, by taking temperature readings from the recorded images.

 

Moisture and Mould

 

Extraneous moisture in building fabrics may compromise structural integrity and create an ideal environment for mould growth and insect infestations. Infra Red cameras differentiate between wet and dry materials by exploiting the thermal characteristic of wet materials to store heat very well and warm up or cool down more slowly than dry materials. The growing number of health-related legal actions based upon adverse human health reactions to mould and bacteria is a growing concern for lenders, developers, facilities managers, and building owners and investors. Let Air Pressure Testing alleviate these problems by undertaking a Thermographic survey

 

To remedy problems caused by mould the primary task is to rapidly and accurately locate and remove all sources of moisture and identify the point of ingress. Infra Red cameras can instantly image complete rooms, inspect areas that can’t be surveyed with moisture meters, reveal wet conditions/areas behind surfaces such as enameled walls and wallpaper that don’t readily water stain, track leaks to their source, monitor the drying process, and confirm when a structure is dry. Let Air Pressure Testing find these areas now by undertaking a Thermographic survey

 

Construction Defects

The current trend for using external thermal and structural insulation facade systems, along with stone, stucco, brick veneers and siding as facades on residential as well as commercial buildings invites the possibility of water ingress if the quality of installation is faulty. Thermographic surveys  can detect or verify moisture infiltration in these weatherproofing “barrier” systems, which are usually caused by insufficient detailing such as inadequate or improperly applied flashing or sealants. Without an Thermographic survey the cause of many “mystery” leaks and the detection of moisture migration paths within the walls, floors and ceilings are virtually impossible to find Air pressure testing will help you find these leaks using the latest Thermographic equipment.

 

Roof Leaks

Roof leaks can cause costly damage to a building’s structural integrity, it’s plant and contents. A Thermographic inspection can quickly pinpoint missing or moisture - laden insulation under a flat roof membrane where the insulation needs replacement, permitting the surgical repair of failed areas rather than the much more costly replacement of the entire roof.

 

Roofing Thermographic  survey / inspection is best conducted after sunset, since the wet areas retain the heat absorbed during the day longer than the surrounding dry areas, causing a temperature difference that can be imaged, with the wet areas showing up as hot spots. The Thermographic inspections can also be used to inspect roof decks from inside a building, a highly effective approach when working with metal and ballasted roofing systems, which are difficult or impossible to inspect from above. In this case, the inspection and then Thermographic survey can be performed shortly after sunrise, when the wet areas of the underside of the roof warm up more slowly than dry areas and show up as cold spots. Using Infrared Thermographic survey cameras, capable of recognising temperature differences down to 0.1 °C. using a Thermographic survey such anomalies are easily recorded for future remedial works.

Post-disaster Inspections

 

Post –disaster inspections

using Infrared cameras & Thermographic surveys can be an invaluable method of rapidly identifying remnant hot spots, assuring that the fire is totally extinguished and providing invaluable data for insurance assessors with their Cause and Origin investigations. The clear Infra Red Thermographic survey images of normally invisible diagnostic evidence can assist in the planning and execution of the restoration programme and in the settlement process. After flooding, Infra Red Thermographic surveys can rapidly define the degree of water damage and enhance the drying process by rendering the wet portion of materials visible.

 

Historic / Listed  Buildings

 

Apart from the obvious and established use of locating and defining heat loss (which in itself can be very important in an old building) applications for infra red Thermographic surveys include the location and/or assessment of the following:

·          Structural timber frames behind render, weather-boarding plaster etc.

·          Structural joints, infilled openings etc. behind render on masonry walls

·          Bond failure and moisture ingress in renders, pargetting and harling

·          Lintels, structural failures, snapped headers etc. in brickwork

·          Variations in moisture levels

 

Assessment and inspection by conventional means can often involve the hire of expensive access equipment, temporary scaffolding and disruption of activity. Infrared Thermographic survey

 

Assessment and inspection by conventional means can often involve the hire of expensive access equipment, temporary scaffolding and disruption of activity. Infrared surveys however can often be conducted from ground level. The speed with which an entire street can be assessed by undertaking a Thermographic survey makes it a valuable tool in historical recording. The Thermographic survey images can be electronically captured, stored on disc and printed out in colour. However, infra-red Thermographic surveys is very sensitive to climatic conditions - rain or bright sun on a wall to be investigated may prevent any successful Thermographic assessment, and the temperature gradient required sometimes means that more information on heated buildings can be obtained in winter, and unheated ones (such as churches) may be better having the Thermographic survey at night when the day's solar gain provides sufficient gradation.

Air leak / Heat Loss

 

A significant contribution to heat loss in a building can be caused by poor levels of air tightness/air leakage . The economic consequences can be increased fuel bills and system running costs caused by heating systems having to work harder than necessary to keep the building at a satisfactory temperature. Relatively minor air leakages in a building can lead to draughts and discomfort for householders, patches of condensation on walls and inefficient energy performance. Identifying the source of a draught can be difficult with the air leakage paths often hidden by kitchen units, bath panels or other boarding.

 

Air Leakage testing uses a fan system to depressurise the building. The system is fitted into a frame sealed within an external opening such as a doorframe. Mechanical ventilation openings are sealed with polythene sheet and tape or other appropriate materials. Smoke extract fans/vents are closed but not sealed, and other internal openings (e.g. lift shafts) are left unsealed. As the building is depressurised, colder air is drawn into the building through gaps, crack and holes in the building fabric. These may be visually noted, identified by the use of smoke pencils or recorded on a thermographic survey image.

 

Combining a blower door test with thermography surveys in this way, enables a systematic recording, with visual evidence in the form of thermograms and photographs, of air leakage paths, which can be combined with annotated floor plans in a Thermographic survey report if required.

Sound / Noise Leakage

Noise leaks can be difficult to locate. As noise tends to follow the same path as an air leak – a leak the size of a keyhole will reduce the sound insulation properties of a wall by 10dB – the same method of blower door and thermography /Thermographic surveys can be utilized to track down the cause of noise leaks between rooms or floors.

 

News Letter for Contractors

 

Has it gone amiss? Are the implications understood? Professionals in a number of related disciplines may not know of its function, but since September 2001 thermography/ Thermographic surveys has sat quietly within Part L2 of the building regulations.

Look closely and the references will be found under ‘section 2.1b’. At the time of publication, the technology and techniques required to ascertain the continuity of insulation/thermal bridging within a building-envelope, were just emerging. Whilst the objectives of such an inspection were readily agreed, the methodology and practicality, in terms of cost / benefit, had yet to be developed.

Most industries are adverse to change and the construction world is no different. Tighter building regulations require a stronger more advanced design and build technique, which in turn necessitates higher standards of inspection, quality audits and product approval.
This is why thermography/ Thermographic survey are becoming an integral part of the overall process, as it can provide the documentary evidence to prove compliance.

So what is thermography?
Thermography is a method by which thermal information of an object can be acquired, processed and then displayed in a visual way with the data recorded within the Thermographic surveys remedial works can easily be undertaken. A ‘thermogram’ or ‘thermal image’ can be likened to a picture created with heat, in the same way that a photograph is a picture created with light. All objects warmer than –273° C emit infrared radiation. The power and wavelength of the emission varies with the temperature such that colder objects emit less infrared energy, this becomes easily recognisable when shown as part of a Thermographic survey.

The small additional cost for building handovers including thermography / thermographic surveys is minimal, especially if compared to the expenditure on energy bills during the life cycle of a structure. Controlling the heat loss leads to an immediate financial benefit for the consumer whilst reducing carbon emission and the conservation of fuel and power.

A thermographic building survey not nly shows continuity of insulation but in areas of prolific heat loss can aid with the development of future design details. The importance of this tool will inevitably grow as the general understanding and acceptance spreads; but that’s for the future.

Only professionally qualified thermographic companies or individuals should conduct thermographic building surveys.

The report delivered should include:

·          Reference to building drawings/plans

·          Camera serial number, time and date of survey

·          Environmental Conditions of Survey

·          Locations of where the still IR images were collected

·          Qualitative infrared and digital video showing all buildings external elevations

·          Report pages detailing any specific observed anomalies with analysis

·          Date, signature, calibration certificate of Camera and Thermographers certification number.

 

For further information on thermography building inspections please contact Air Pressure Testing, who will be more than willing to assist with any of your questions or queries.

 

 

 

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